Average Height Of A 15 Year Old Boy In Cm How to Calculate Cut and Fill for a Building Site

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How to Calculate Cut and Fill for a Building Site

Before you can build an office building, home, shopping center, parking lot or any other structure, the site must be graded.

Estimating the amount of cuts and embankments required for grading the construction site is one of the most demanding and tedious processes in the construction assessment. Calculating building materials, areas to be painted, number of doors and windows, etc. is child’s play compared to estimating the amount of clippings and fill for a construction site. The reasons for this are that the untreated place almost always has an irregular surface. Therefore, it is very difficult to determine the amount of dirt that needs to be removed from the untreated area or introduced.

There are three main ways to calculate cuts and embankments for a construction site. The first two are “manual” and require a site plan, ruler, pencil, calculator and hours of time. The third method requires mining software, a computer, and a few computer skills.

The first “manual” method uses a grid method to calculate cuts and embankments for the site. In this method, the site is divided into grid squares of equal size. Grid squares are usually 1 to 2 inches in size on a paper plan. For each corner of each grid square, the existing elevation and the proposed or final elevation of the elevation are calculated and recorded on the plan. Once all elevations have been determined, the difference between the existing and proposed elevation at each corner is also noted on the plan. Then, for each grid square, those differences in height for each of the four corners are added up and the average is calculated by dividing the sum by 4. If the average of the height differences for a grid square is negative, then it is a cropped area. On the cuts, the existing elevations must be lowered to the proposed elevations or “cut”. If the average height difference is positive, it means that the existing elevations should be raised to the proposed elevations or “filled in”. Then all the negative numbers are added and summed to determine the total depth of cut. Then the positive numbers are added and added up as the total fill depths. Then each of these cut totals and fill totals is multiplied by the area of ​​the grid squares to determine the number of cubic feet cut and cubic feet filled. And finally, those cut or fill volumes are divided by 27 to determine the total cubic yards of cut and fill at the site (excavators work in cubic yards, not cubic feet). Finally, the difference between the total cutting volume and the total filling volume is calculated. If there is more cut than backfill, then the dirt must be removed from the site and trucked away. If there is more fill than cut, then dirt must be brought onto the site. The time required to calculate cut and fill using the grid method is about eight hours for a single-sheet site plan of moderate complexity. The accuracy of this method is +/-20%.

Another method used to calculate cuts and embankments is called the section method. In this method, the appraiser draws a series of equally spaced horizontal lines across the site plan 1 to 2 inches apart. Then, for each cross-section line, the estimator plots, on graph paper, both the existing area and the proposed area in relation to the distance along the cross-section. It then counts the grid squares where the existing area is above the proposed area. This is the cutting surface for that cross section. It then counts the grid squares where the existing area is below the proposed area. This is the fill area for the cross section. Repeats these steps until all sections for the site plan are completed. It then calculates the average of the cut area between each pair of cross sections and multiplies that by the distance between the cross sections and divides that number by 27. This is the cut volume between adjacent cross sections. It then repeats these steps for the fill regions to determine the fill volume between all adjacent cross sections. It then adds up all cut volumes and all embankment volumes to determine the total cut and embankment for the site. If there are more cuts than fill, then dirt must be removed from the site. If there is more fill than cut, dirt must be brought onto the site. The time required to calculate cuts and embankments using the cross-section method is about 20 to 30% longer than the lattice method. The accuracy of this method is about +/-15%.

The third and final method of calculating cut and fill for a construction site is to use excavation software. In this method, elevation data is plotted from a paper site plan using a large format digitizer, plotted on screen using a PDF of the site plan, or imported directly from an AutoCAD file. The computer then analyzes the drawing to build existing and proposed surfaces. Then for hundreds of thousands of points on the site, the software calculates the difference between the existing and proposed elevations to determine the total cut or fill volume for the site. The time required to calculate cuts and embankments using excavation software is approximately one quarter of the time required by the grid method. The accuracy of this method is about +/-5%.

The advantages of the grid method and the cross-section method for calculating cuts and embankments are that both use inexpensive and commonly available supplies. The downside is that both require many hours of work and have moderate accuracy.

The advantage of using excavation software to calculate cuts and embankments is much faster estimation speed and much higher accuracy. Disadvantages are costs that can range from a few thousand dollars to tens of thousands of dollars for software and hardware and require the appraiser to have some computer skills.

The appropriate method for your company to calculate cut and fill for your bids depends on the number of excavations you have to do each year. If you only do a few excavations a year and you or your appraiser are not too busy, then “hand” methods are probably appropriate. If you are an excavator or general contractor who does a lot of cut and fill evaluation, then purchasing the necessary excavation hardware and software will greatly increase your ability and accuracy in bidding on jobs that require excavation.

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